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Digital Guide to Moth Identification

620305.973640.97Choristoneura fumiferana complex – W. Spruce Budworm complex
© Dick Wilson - DNA © Dick Wilson - DNA
Taxonomic Notes: The Choristoneura fumiferana complex includes C. carnana, freemani, fumiferana, lambertiana, orae, pinus, retiniana.
References
  • Brunet, B.M., G.S. Blackburn, K. Muirhead, L.M. Lumley, B. Boyle, R.C. Lévesque, M. Cusson, F.A.H. Sperling, 2016. Two's company, three's a crowd: new insights on spruce budworm species boundaries using genotyping-by-sequencing in an integrative species assessment (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Systematic Entomology, 42: 317-328.
  • Lumley, L.M. & F.H. Sperling, 2010. Integrating morphology and mitochondrial DNA for species delimitation within the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) cryptic species complex (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Systemic Entomology, 35(3): 416-428.
  • Lumley, L.M. & F.H. Sperling, 2011. Utility of microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA for species delimitation in the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) species complex (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 58(2): 232-243.

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