Tribe Xylenini, Subtribe Xylenina. The taxa were diagnosed and treated as a subfamily and tribe by Fibiger and Lafontaine (2005) and by Lafontaine and Fibiger (2006), and they also included the Apameini as a tribe. However, DNA data indicate that the Xyleninae are paraphyletic in that some tribes (e.g., Caradrinini, Elaphriini, and Prodeniini) belong outside of the Xyleninae + Hadeninae + Noctuinae clade, so we separate the tribes of the former Xyleninae and treat them as tribes of the expanded, more inclusive, concept of the Noctuinae s.l. The tribes Apameini + Xylenini, as used here, do appear to form a monophyletic group.