Subfamily Scoliopteryginae. Classification follows that of Kitching and Rawlins [1998] for the Scoliopterygini, except that the group is raised to subfamily status stat. rev., because of the lack of morphological (Holloway 2005) and molecular (Zahiri et al. 2010) support for inclusion within the Calpinae. This group has generally been treated as subordinate within the calpines due to the shared, specialized structures of a piercing proboscis, but Holloway (2005) outlines numerous structural features that define scoliopterygines and calpines as separate groups. Nuclear gene data also does not support a close relationship of Scoliopteryx and Calpinae, but does support a close scoliopterygine-anomine relationship (Zahiri et al. 2010), also suggested by Holloway (2005).