Subtribe Cisthenina. Several lineages within the Lithosiini were proposed or re-defined by Bendib and Minet (1999), but not all North American genera were dealt with or explicitly included in the existing subtribes (described as tribes); as such, the subtribal arrangement should be considered provisional. The Cisthenina in particular includes morphologically very divergent genera and genus groups, and are likely not a monophyletic group as currently defined.