Raphia pallula, R. elbea. The situation in Raphia is complex in the West, where R. pallula (TL: Siskiyou Co., California) and R. elbea (TL: Deming, New Mexico) appear to intergrade imperceptibly with the pale form of frater occurring in the Great Basin and Rocky Mountain region, despite relatively large DNA barcode divergences between all three taxa. Clearly more research is needed on the status of these taxa.