Raphia frater. We treat Raphia coloradensis as a synonym of R. frater because specimens from ecological transition zones in southern Alberta, southern British Columbia and the edges of the Great Basin are extremely variable, ranging in phenotype from the pale, dusty coloradensis form to the grey boreal frater form, congruent with the lack of detectable differences in male and female genitalic structure between these forms. DNA barcode data supports this concept of a single phenotypically variable species.